[...a citizenship that complements yet does not define the owner, whether it is human or code....]

The Internet transforms us. We become data. 

Made out of pixels and code.



"The early citizens of the net (or netizens) took their netizenship serious, and built home-pages about themselves and subjects they were experts in."

"Falling bits"

Anon, Violence Graphique

These pioneers found their brave new world at Geocities, a free web-hosting provider that was modelled after a city and where you could get a free "piece of land" to build your digital home in a certain neighbourhood based on the subject of your homepage [...]

From the moment you’re 

 given a keypad, you start a  trail of your digital 

 identity [...

"We know the citizens of the Internet live in a place where the rules and structures are not set up yet, where a struggle for power is already happening."

Axelle Tessandier

The Blue Marble

Apollo 17, 1972

Photo by: Petter Garritano

"120504" David Ope,  2012

"Inside a router"

FRITZ!Box Fon WLAN 7140

“Wired people should know something about wires.”  
- Neal Stephenson

"An Internet"

Jeroen Van Loon, 2016

Photo by: Gert-Jan van Rooij

Today’s internet consists of glass fibre cables that stretch across the ocean floor, connecting continents and thereby creating a worldwide network. These cables ensure that, wherever you are, you will always have access to the same data.


Data, whose main value is that they are saved and stored.

"Coaxial telephone cable"

Developed at the Bell laboratories in Baltimore in 1971

The stakes for the future of the web are high.

"How we feel about a technology today greatly determines how we will behave towards a new technology tomorrow. One day the Internet will become outdated and it will be replaced by a new medium. 

New technology is often met with the same shortsighted critique of society’s technophobes and technophiles. In order to understand the new, we need to understand the present." - JVL

"Life needs Internet" Jeroen van Loon, 2014

"journey to digital literacy " Gwendolyne Rottger, 2017

Exploring our relationship to online information and the consequences of interacting with it.

"Bits of Writing" Kirsten Spruit, 2017

Digital data exists on an infinitesimal scale.

Like any language, its physicality is determined by the vessels used for storage or transmission. In order for us to work with it, data must be decoded from binary values of ones and zeros back into the realm of human perception. 

"Wifi Tapestry" Richard Vijgen, 2017

Streams of data transmitted through space appear as visual traces from an invisible dimension that gradually forms and dissolves.

Illustration by

Steve Brodner ​

Internet trolls have a manifesto of sorts, which states they are doing it for the "lulz," or laughs.

What trolls do for the lulz ranges from clever pranks to harassment to violent threats. There's also doxxing--publishing personal data, such as Social Security numbers and bank accounts--and swatting, calling in an emergency to a victim's house so the SWAT team busts in. 

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Technology wasn't invented by humans. Rather the other way around.


 Jean-François Lyotard

"We will create a civilization of the Mind in Cyberspace. May it be more humane and fair than the world your governments have made before."

John Perry Barlow, 1996

Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace 

Are we facing a scarcity of


"Infinite citizenship"Guidetta Veldrame, 2014

Citizenship, offers access to a variety of resources, such as public welfare and aids; rights, such as voting, safety, mobility; but implies duties as well, such as taxation and conscription; and legacies, as for example a public debt [...]

The Antarctic Treaty, which unites over 50 nations, has decreed Antarctica a continent dedicated to scientific research with common pacific aims: to protect the environment and to encourage international cooperation.


Antarctica embodies utopia: a continent whose extreme climate imposes mutual aid and solidarity, freedom of research, of sharing, and collaboration for the good of the planet. It is a place where the immaculate whiteness contains all the wishes of humanity, to spread a message of hope for future generations.


Studio Orta, 2007

"Antartica World Passport" 

Studio Orta, 2008

“This is historical to be the first robot in the world to be recognized with a citizenship.”



Founded: August 30, 2003
Government Type: Direct Citizen Representation
Head of State: Non-president Robert Jelinek
Territories: Area I (4 provinces): 787.910 m2
                    Area II (Rented/owned in 91 countries): 16.992.810,27 m2
Population since 30.8.2003: 13.900 citizens
Continental ethnic groups [%]: 22% European, 72% African, 3% Asian,
2% North American, 1% Australian
Languages: Global
Diplomatic languages: German, English,
National day: August 30
National dish: Soup of Sabotage
Currency: SoS
Anthem: Sabotage (17 versions)
International disputes: USA (2005)

The web ecology runs on quantity.


Quantity is what drove the vast data leaks of Julian Assange, Aaron Swartz, Chelsea Manning, and Edward Snowden, leaks so absurdly large they could never be read in their entirety, only parsed, leaks so frighteningly huge they were derided by the mainstream media as “information vandalism,” a critique that mistook the leak’s form for function -- or malfunction -- as if to say the gesture of liberating information is as important as what’s actually being moved [...]

The Universal Unconditional - Stefania Vulpi (2015)
A future where citizenship is flexible, temporary and transferable.

“Today, people move around the world more than ever,” says Vulpi. “Our citizenship defines our status and rights in a foreign country, but it often can bring struggles and limitations in exercising the universal rights we all are entitled to.”

"Universal Unconditionally" 

Stefania Vulpi, 2015

"Flat people" Marie Caye, 2016

"When several Flat People merge, perfect digital humans are created."



1 - an inhabitant of a city or town; especially : one entitled to the rights and privileges of a freeman
2 a
: a member of a state

   b: a native or naturalized person who owes allegiance to a government and is entitled to protection from it She was an American citizen but lived most of her life abroad.
3 - 
a civilian as distinguished from a specialized servant of the state Soldiers were sent to protect the citizens.


"A Men’s Toy"

Dandan Zhang, 2010

A digital citizen refers to a person utilizing information technology (IT) in order to engage in society, politics, and government. Karen Mossberger,  define digital citizens as "those who use the Internet regularly and effectively".



Citizenship, Digital, Karen Mossberger, Caroline Tolbert, and Ramona McNeal. 2017. "Digital Citizenship". MIT Press.

 Member of online society connected by the Internet.  ‘Real’ and virtual mesh and create a hybrid characterized by code and data flow. 


Christian Boltanski


Beatriz Colomina + Mark Wigley, 2016

Exploring the virtual landscape of webpages.

"The Design of Dissent"Mirko Ilic, 2011

Peter Steiner

The New Yorker

Published on July 5, 1993 

"avtavr" Joan Heemskerk + Dirk Paesmans , 2003

Was this poem written by

a human or a ​​


World map of submarine cables - 2007 

Showcasing submarine fiber-optic telecommunication cables around the world.

 “The Shoes that Broke the Silence,”

Antonio Gonzales Paucar, 2011

jus sanguinis - the principle of blood

jus solis - defines citizens as those born within the country

jus internetis - internet connected


“The only hope we have is the internet. We must strive to keep it free." 

L Neil Smith